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CCAs in California focus on the rapid transition to highly renewable and/or greenhouse gas-free sources of electricity generation while keeping rates at or below what investor-owned utilities charge.  California’s focus on the environmental benefits that CCAs can deliver distinguish it from other states where a focus on lower rates has been the primary driver of the growth of CCAs.

California experimented briefly with electricity deregulation in the late 1990s, but pulled back after the California electricity crisis bankrupted the state’s three large investor-owned utilities (IOUs).  The state electricity market is now regulated. For residents and almost all businesses, CCAs (where they exist) are the only alternative to buying electricity from the local IOU.  (CCAs are not offered in cities that operate municipal electric utilities, such as Los Angeles, Sacramento, Riverside and more than a dozen others.)  Some large businesses are allowed to purchase power directly from independent electric service providers via “Direct Access,” but this program has been capped and its expansion is tightly constrained.  Proposed legislation to expand Direct Access (SB 286) failed in 2016.

CCAs are opt-out programs and are established by a local ordinance voted on by the governing body of a county, city or special district (e.g. local water agency or public utility district).  No public vote or referendum is required.

CCAs are set up either by a single jurisdiction (as in the cities of San Francisco, San Jose and Lancaster) or by two or more jurisdictions that create a Joint Powers Authority (JPA) to operate the CCA on their behalf.  When a JPA is used, each jurisdiction, regardless of its population, usually gets one seat on the JPA’s Board of Directors.  Directors are usually elected officials of participating jurisdictions, e.g., a city council member of county supervisor.  Directors are appointed by the jurisdiction’s governing body.

The JPA approach is favored because it creates a legal firewall between the potential future liabilities of the JPA and the assets of its member cities and towns, although member cities may be required to provide loans or loan guarantees to enable the JPA to secure bank loans for its initial working capital.

Once a CCA has operated successfully for a period of time it is possible for it to expand geographically and add customers in other parts of the state, as both Marin Clean Energy,  Sonoma Clean Power and Lancaster Choice Energy have done.

Initial power supply contracts for new CCAs are typically for 5 years or less, but 15-25 year power purchase agreements (PPAs) for solar, wind and geothermal generation are common for more established CCAs.  Development of local renewable energy projects is often a core goal.  Most CCAs in California also offer solar net energy metering tariffs that are slightly more generous (e.g., 1 cent per kWh) than those offered by IOUs.  Many also offer feed-in-tariff incentives for medium and large-scale local solar projects, energy efficiency programs, and demand response programs.

California’s first CCA, Marin Clean Energy, was launched in 2010 to serve customers in parts of Marin County. The program that was once branded as a “risky scheme” has proven to be economically viable and has expanded its service territory and its roster of programs and services.

Interest in CCAs and their environmental benefits has grown dramatically since 2014.  The graphic in the upper right of this page shows the current status of programs that are operational or well on their way to becoming so.  Links to CCA web sites appear in the right-hand column.

  • Unlike the process in many other states, communities in California do not have to hold a referendum to start or join a CCA. Local elected officials authorize participation in a CCA by a simple majority vote.

  • Large hydro-electric dams and nuclear power plants are not classified as eligible renewable energy technologies in California, but the electricity they produce is considered to be greenhouse gas free.

  • Every CCA offers both a basic (default) electricity offering (typically 35% to 55% renewable) and also a 100% renewable option for one to two cents more per kWh.

  • Unbundled Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) are not widely used by California CCAs, though they are sometimes used during the first year or two of a new CCA’s operation before new solar or wind farms can be built to serve the CCA’s customers.

  • When it began delivering electricity in April 2017, Silicon Valley Clean Energy was the first California CCA whose default offering was 100% GHG-free.

  • Clean Power Alliance is currently California’s largest CCA and serves approximately 3 million customers and 1 million customer accounts across 31 communities throughout Southern California.

  • Formed in February, 2021, California Community Power is a Joint Powers Agency comprised of ten California CCAs. CC Power allows its member CCAs to combine their buying power to procure new, cost-effective clean energy and reliability resources to continue advancing local and state climate goals. The new JPA serves more than 2 million customers in more than 140 municipalities from Humboldt to Santa Barbara. 

  • In May, 2021, Solana Energy Alliance merged with Clean Energy Alliance.

  • In June, 2021, customers of Western Community Energy switched back to SCE due to their bankruptcy filing.

  • AB 117 (2002) established Community Choice in California

  • SB 790 (2011) was passed in response to efforts by Pacific Gas & Electric, in particular 2010’s Proposition 16, to stop the growth of CCAs. It created a code of conduct that utilities must adhere to.  In essence, it prohibited utilities from marketing against CCAs except through a separate marketing division separated by a “firewall” from the other operations of the utility.  The first such marketing entity was established in late 2016 by Sempra Energy, the corporate parent of San Diego Gas and Electric.

  • AB 1110 (2016) established a framework for disclosing GHG emissions that will apply to CCAs.


San Diego Community Power aims to provide green energy alternative to SDG&E., March 15, 2023

Peninsula Clean Energy Signs Four Contracts Expanding Renewable Power, Storage Capability., January 24, 2023

Peninsula Clean Energy, Renewable America Launch New Merced County Solar Project., October 26, 2022

Eight more Clean Power Alliance Communities Choose 100% Green Power as their primary energy option to create a healthier and more sustainable future., October 24, 2022

California Community Choice Aggregation Group Enters Geothermal Energy Agreement., October 20, 2022

Stockton chooses alternative to PG&E as new city power distributor., October 4, 2022

California legislative session wraps up with climate wins. The Climate Center, September 1, 2022

CAISO’s First Geothermal Plant in 30 Years Comes Online., August 25, 2022

Leap and CalChoice Announce Program to Secure Consistent Energy Supply and Pricing., July 27, 2022

Oceanside to join Clean Energy Alliance. The Coast News Group, June 16, 2022

Humboldt County airport, Coast Guard station get renewable energy microgrid. Times Standard, June 10, 2022

California community choice aggregator Sonoma Clean Power signs solar-plus-storage PPA. Energy Storage News, June 9, 2022

Not-for-profit community choice aggregator activates 73 MW solar project. PV Magazine, June 1, 2022

San Jose Achieves Cleanest Power Mix of Ten Largest U.S. Cities., April 21, 2022

Happy Birthday Community Choice., March 3, 2022

Don Rivenes: Grass Valley investigating new way to acquire electricity. The Union, February 17, 2022

California Public Utilities Commission approves US$49 billion clean energy plan. Energy Storage News, February 16, 2022

Convergent Energy + Power's Battery Storage System to Increase Electricity Reliability in California's East Bay in Partnership with East Bay Community Energy., January 14, 2022

San Diego Community Power prepares rollout in Encinitas. The Coast News Group, January 7, 2022

Santa Barbara Clean Energy Launches October 1st., October 1, 2021

New bill could bring offshore wind power to coast of Humboldt County., September 24, 2021


Peninsula Clean Energy seals 35-MW geothermal PPA with Geysers operator. Renewables Now, September 8, 2021

Moody's assigns A1 to California Community Choice Financing Authority Clean Energy Project Revenue Bonds, Series 2021B., September 8, 2021

County to join 5-city CCA as alternative to SDG&E. Will it bring lower electric rates? Encinitas Advocate, September 1, 2021

Clean Energy Alliance secures new contract for energy procurement. Del Mar Times, August 28, 2021

Carpinteria, Goleta and Southern Santa Barbara County to be Served by Central Coast Community Energy Beginning this October., August 2, 2021

Two CCAs Ink Seven Power Contracts. California Energy Markets, July 23, 2021

Community Energy Agencies Contract for 778 MW of Renewable Energy and 118.75 MW of Storage., July 19, 2021

Clean Energy Alliance keeps tabs on summer heat, energy rates. The Coast News Group, July 8, 2021

California CCAs see power purchases continue to slump in Q1 due to pandemic. S&P Global, July 2, 2021

Central Coast Community Energy overhauls rates, looks to ramp up local energy programs., July 1, 2021

San Diego Turning Green: Airport To Run On 100% Renewable Energy. Simple Flying, June 24, 2021

Pioneer Energy coming next year (to El Dorado County). Mountain Democrat, June 11, 2021

Biden administration makes major push on wind energy off California coast; Humboldt, Morro Bay to lead the way. The Mendocino Voice, May 26, 2021

PRESS RELEASE: Western Community Energy Files For Chapter 9 Bankruptcy Protection To Restructure Organization’s Financial Obligations. May 24, 2021

Clean Energy Alliance will not join newly formed JPA before launch. The Coast News Group, April 13, 2021

Number of CCA Communities in California Hits 200 Mark. CalCCA, April 1, 2021

Eight Community Choice Aggregators Partner to Form California Community Power – A Joint Powers Authority. SVCE News Release, February 8, 2021


Apple Valley Choice Energy

City of Apple Valley

Baldwin Park Resident Owned Utility District

City of Baldwin Park

Central Coast Community Energy

Unincorporated Monterey, San Benito, Santa Barbara and Santa Cruz Counties plus 26 cities

Clean Energy Alliance

Cities of Carlsbad, Solana Beach, Del Mar

Clean Power Alliance 

Unincorporated Ventura County plus 7 cities, Unincorporated Los Angeles County plus 23 cities


San Francisco County

Desert Community Energy 

Palm Springs

East Bay Community Energy 

Unincorporated Alameda County plus 11 cities

King City Community Power

King City

Lancaster Choice Energy 

City of Lancaster


Marin and Napa Counties, Unincorporated Solano County plus 1 city, Unincorporated Contra Costa County plus 13 cities

Peninsula Clean Energy 

Unincorporated San Mateo County plus 20 cities

Pico Rivera Innovative Municipal Energy 

City of Pico Rivera

Pioneer Community Energy 

Unincorporated Placer County plus 5 cities

Pomona Choice Energy

City of Pomona

Rancho Mirage Energy Authority 

City of Rancho Mirage

Redwood Coast Energy Authority 

Humboldt County

San Diego Community Power 

Cities of San Diego, Chula Vista, La Mesa, Encinitas and Imperial Beach

San Jacinto Power 

City of San Jacinto

San José Clean Energy 

City of San Jose

Santa Barbara Clean Power

City of Santa Barbara

Silicon Valley Clean Energy 

Unincorporated Santa Clara County plus 13 cities

Sonoma Clean Power  

Sonoma and Mendocino Counties

Valley Clean Energy 

Yolo County and cities of Winters, Woodland and Davis

Western Community Energy
(declared bankruptcy, customers switched to SCE in June, 2021)Cities of Perris, Norco, Wildomar, Eastvale, Hemet and Jurupa Valley


California Independent System Operator (CAISO)

California Energy Commission

California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC)

California Air Resources Board


US. Energy Information Administration, California State Energy Profile

California Community Choice Association (Cal-CCA) (a trade association representing the operating CCAs)

California Community Power (a group of 10 California CCAs who formed a JPA to combine their buying power to procure new, cost-effective clean energy and reliability resources).

California Alliance for Community Energy (CCA advocacy group)

California Renewables Portfolio Standard (Goals and progress to date in expanding renewable energy generation)

Californians for Energy Choice (CCA advocacy group)

The Role of Community Choice Aggregators
in Advancing Clean Energy Transitions: Lessons From California
. UCLA Luskin Center for Innovation, October, 2020

Center for Climate Protection (Environmental protection non-profit with a focus on CCA)

Clean Power Exchange (News about issues important to CCAs)

Pacific Gas & Electric (The utility serving most of Northern and Central California)

San Diego Gas & Electric (The utility serving San Diego and surrounding areas)

Southern California Edison (The electric-only utility serving most of Southern California)


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